Sardinia, Italy

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Interactive Map of Sardinia, Italy

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Sardinia is an island located off the western coast of Italy, just below the French island of Corsica. It is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and the third-largest region of Italy by size.  It has beautiful beaches, white sand, and a mountainous interior with plenty of hiking trails making it one of the more popular tourist destinations. The rugged landscape also has thousands of Bronze Age stone ruins that are shaped like beehives. 

Cities as Seen on a Map of Sardinia, Italy:

  • Cagliari
  • Olbia
  • Pula
  • Bosa
  • Alghero
  • Porto Torres
  • Carbonia
  • Nuora
  • Oristano
  • Sassari
  • Selargius

Quick Facts:

  • Population = 1.6 million
  • Language = Sardinian (native language), Latin, Romanian, Arabic, and Chinese
  • Ethnicities = Sardinian, Italian, Romanian, Arabic, African
  • Capital = Cagliari

The History of Sardinia

The history of Sardinia is recorded back to the paleolithic time period! As far as the history of the region, we will begin when the Romans took control of the island away from the Carthaginians, a group of people native to the Western Mediterranean. The Romans ruled the island of Sardinia for 694 years. 

In 456 AD, a Germanic tribe called the Vandals invaded the island and ruled for 78 years until the Romans took it back. Later in 533, the Byzantine Empire gained control of Sardinia, where it would stay for the next 300 years.

In the following centuries, Sardinia would change hands between Spanish, Papal, and Greek control. From 1323 to 1708, Sardinia was an Aragonese-Spanish territory. During this time period, Spanish influence was extremely high, and some of the beliefs and rituals are still practiced today.

The French would attempt to take control of Sardinia from the Spanish. This would last from the early 1700s to around 1796, and in the 1860s, Sardinia would officially join the Kingdom of Italy. 


A wide variety of languages are spoken on the island of Sardinia because so many different inhabitants lived in the region. The primary language is Sardinian, but Latin, Romanian, Arabic, and Chinese are often spoken because of the large influx of settlers that have inhabited the area over time.


Although Sardinia is an island off the western coast of Italy, the primary religion in the region is Roman Catholic, just as the mainland of Italy. However, because Sardinia is located in the Mediterranean Sea, immigrants from nearby regions, such as North Africa, France, and Spain, have settled in the area, expanding the religion to more than just Roman Catholicism. Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, and Islam can also be practiced in the region.


The island of Sardinia has both warm climates and cool climates. The plains of the region created an ideal climate for wheat farming. 

The geography and climate also allow Sardinia to have a thriving sheep population at approximately 4 million in the region. In addition to sheep breeding and farming, goats and cattle were also bred and harvested. The milk from sheep and goats is used to make cheese in the region. When the meat is not being harvested, farmers will grow artichokes, tomatoes, rice, and citrus fruits. 

Deep in the forests of the island, there are large oak trees which produce around 80% of the Italian cork. 

Even though Sardinia is an island, fishing is extremely rare. Most of the agriculture that is harvested is done on land. 

Migration Patterns

During the 1860s, after Sardinia had joined the Kingdom of Italy, the region struggled. The entire Kingdom of Italy was poverty-stricken, overpopulated, and unemployed. This caused the largest emigration in history with between 12 and 13 Italians emigrating from the region to find work. 

After the Second World War, emigration spiked again due to the devastation the war had left on the economy. In 1973, the emigration peaked due to the 1973 oil crisis. Italians were laid off during the crisis and had to seek work elsewhere. 

There has been little immigration to Sardinia. To make matters worse, rebirth is the lowest in all of the 20 regions of Italy, running the risk that the population of Sardinia will gradually decrease over time. 


Sardinia is a melting pot of many nationalities, ethnicities, and lineages. Italian, Romanian, Sardinian, Arabic, and African can all be traced back to the region of Sardinia. While the most dominant genealogy is likely Sardinian or Italian, people with genealogy connections to the region of Sardinia can have any combination of Italian, Romanian, Sardinian, Arabic, or African genes. 

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Caleb Pike
About the author

Caleb Pike is an avid hiker and nature lover, with a passion for exploring the great outdoors. He's a writer, photographer, and adventurer, always seeking new trails to blaze and peaks to conquer.